Busting dust in a basement shop
First, reduce and capture dust
You can eliminate a lot of dust by adopting more hand-tool techniques. Planes, chisels, and scrapers create chips and shavings that clean up with a broom and dustpan, with zero chance of dust floating upstairs.
To capture dust from stationary and benchtop tools, connect a sufficiently sized dust collector outfitted with a filter that traps 1-micron particles with 99.9 percent or better efficiency. (Find articles with more information about this in More Resources on slide 8).
Handheld power tools, such as sanders, routers, and jigsaws, pose a bigger challenge. Whenever possible, choose a tool with a dust-collection port, photo above, and hook it to a shop vacuum equipped with a HEPA filter. (See What the heck are HEPA and MERV on slide 3.) These filters cost about three times more than disposable ones, but last up to five times longer. And as long as your vacuum has a good seal between the motor and tub, almost no dust ends up in the air.
Air cleaners are big draws
An air cleaner, below, filters out airborne dust particles that escape up-close collection. When sanding, place the unit on the benchtop next to your work. Connect it to a timer and, to clean the air, let the unit run for 15 minutes after you leave the shop.
Finally, when you stop for the day, take a few minutes to clean up before leaving. Sweep up chips with a broom and throw them in the trash; then vacuum up sawdust on the floor, especially around the door and paths to it.
What the heck are HEPA and MERV?
You can find aftermarket high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters for shop vacuums at home centers and online. These filters remove 99.97 percent of particles down to .3 microns. Avoid filters labeled "HEPA-type" or "HEPA-style"—these do not provide the same level of filtration.
The MERV (minimum-efficiency reporting value) system measures the efficiency of filters installed in the ductwork of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Filters with higher MERV ratings capture smaller particles than those with lower MERV ratings. Filters up to MERV 12 are typically used in residential applications, right.
3M uses a proprietary microparticle performance rating (MPR) system for its Filtrete-brand filters. The MPR numbers translate approximately as MPR 600=MERV 8; MPR 1000=MERV 11; MPR 1500=MERV 12, MPR 1900=MERV 13.
If living spaces become dusty quickly or if shop sessions aggravate someone's allergies, switching to a filter with a higher MERV rating may help. But have a professional evaluate your HVAC system first because a high-efficiency filter may reduce airflow and strain the blower motor.
Seal the exits
Even the best dust-collection system can't capture every speck of dust. To keep it from migrating to other parts of the house, plug any gaps where it could escape.
Start with the door that separates your shop from the rest of the house. Seal around the top and sides of the door with weatherstripping and install a sweep or threshold along the bottom. If you're installing a new door, choose an exterior-grade prehung door, photo below. It seals on all four edges.
Play peekaboo with the gaps
To find small leaks where dust can escape, turn on the lights in the rooms on the other side of the walls and ceiling, cover any windows in the shop (or do this test at night), and then turn off the shop lights. Give your eyes a minute to adjust to the dark, then look for light showing around doors; above and below walls; in corners; and around pipes, wires, and ducts, photo below Move to different spots in the shop, look around again and make note of the areas where you see light.
Caulk the cracks
After locating the gaps, fill them. Apply caulk in gaps narrower than 1⁄8 ", photo below. For wider areas, use bits from a batt of insulation, or an expanding foam spray. Around steam pipes, use fiberglass pipe insulation (different from the insulation used in walls or attics), available from heating contractors.
Foil dust's entry into ducts
A forced-air system that runs through your shop can send dust throughout the house, so check air ducts. Seal seams between metal duct sections with foil tape, photo below.
If the cold-air returns consist of sheet metal nailed between floor joists, seal between the metal and wood with caulk, photo below. Also, apply a bead of caulk along the top outside edges of the same joists where they meet the subfloor.
If the furnace itself lies within your shop space, wall it off to isolate it from dust. If possible, upgrade to a filter with a higher MERV rating to capture dust that gets into the ventilation system despite your best efforts. Water heaters or other appliances with pilot lights should also be walled off from your workshop.
Dress to egress
Dust inevitably clings to you and your clothes as you work. Follow the tips in the photo below to make a clean exit.
For additional help on assembling an efficient dust-collection system, refer to the following:
- "Figure Dust-Collection Needs" Issue 119 (December 1999) or online at woodmagazine.com/spcalc
- "Guide to Workshop Dust Control" Issue 143 (September 2002)v
- "Dust Collection that Evolves With Your Shop" Issue 198 (July 2010)
- "Clearing the Air: How to Buy a Dust Collector" Issue 207 (October 2011)
- "Dust-Defying Cyclone" Issue 100 (November 1997)
- Visit our forums to learn more about reader modifications to the cyclone in issue 100: woodmagazine.com/cyclonemods
Download these articles for a small fee at woodmagazine.com/plans. Type the article title in the search box.